2012 Edition

2012 Policy Journal (full edition)

The 16th Edition of the University of Washington Bothell Policy Journal combines the outstanding efforts in scholarship, perseverance, and collaboration put forth by the authors, student Editorial Board, staff, and faculty. There are a diverse range of policy issues important to our student body. The students’ work in this edition represents valuable contributions and academic excellence on topics such as green energy, human rights, access to resources, implications of legal decisions, and a myriad of other U.S. and international policies.

The new cover marks a milestone in the increasing support from faculty and students in the success of this journal. The cover has been redesigned to illustrate interdisciplinary policy work that branches from the students’ dedication to social justice and civic engagement. By publishing a wide range of policy related articles, the UW Bothell Policy Journal hopes to highlight the vast contributions of our students, faculty, and supporters, as well as the importance of sharing research in our collective academic pursuits. A special thanks to Ani Dorsett and Cora Thomas who brought our vision of the newly redesigned cover to life.

The UW Bothell Policy Journal Editorial Board would like to thank Dr. Andrea Stone and Kim Sharp for their guidance and patience during the process of bringing this edition to print. The Writing Center provided a tremendous amount of assistance and support to both the authors and Board members, as each article was carefully revised and edited. The Journal would not be possible without the dedication of the UW Bothell students. We would like to thank all authors who submitted manuscripts to be reviewed for publication. Finally, we extend our appreciation to Harmony Gonty and Salem Levesque for assistance with graphic design.

The opinions expressed in these articles do not necessarily reflect those of the University of Washington, its staff, or the Editorial Board. We value the variety of opinions, research, knowledge, and experiences that contribute to each one of the articles. The UW Bothell Policy Journal acknowledges and appreciates the right of students to express these differences, and hopes to highlight the importance of sharing these differences in order to branch out and grow the university’s dedication to academic and personal excellence.

Difficulties in Refuge: Seeking Answers in Thailand’s Decision to Forcibly Deport Thousands of Hmong

Paul Henderson

In early 2010, nearly 5,000 Hmong refugees seeking asylum from Laos were forced out of Thai refugee camps along the Thailand/Laos border. Each refugee was forced back into Laos, a country with a history of severe human rights violations against the Hmong population. Some of them had been living in Thailand for years, and others were even designated as ‘persons of concern’ by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Human Rights Watch, 2011a). The denial of media access and the rejection of assistance offered by the United Nations and several countries are just a few examples showing that the Thai government purposely violated numerous human rights in their decision to forcibly deport refugees. The consequences of this decision have long-term effects, as Thailand is a haven for asylum seekers in an increasingly unstable region. Multiple policy changes are recommended to ensure these actions are not repeated, and to safeguard the Hmong already living within Laos.

Child Marriage in Ethiopia and its Associated Human Rights Violations

Brenda Rodgers

Child marriage is a violation of children’s rights, women’s rights, and human rights. This harmful, traditional practice sets up structural conditions for poverty, domestic violence, infant and maternal mortality, the spread of disease, and gross gender inequality. The implications of child marriage are significant; egregiously violating numerous human rights established by the United Nations (U.N.) Universal Declaration of Human Rights and negatively impacting UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),which is a global action campaign for eliminating dire poverty and inequities. International instruments in place have failed to prevent child marriage in many parts of the developing world. Laws are critical but cannot combat this harmful practice alone. A collaboration of political, economic and social forces is needed to stimulate and sustain a sea change of traditional beliefs. This research provides policy recommendations for the United States government and non-government organizations (NGOs) in building capacity for child marriage education and elimination programs.

Fighting Privatization in Contemporary Bolivia: Cultures of Resistance

Brenden Mclane

Since 1986, the wave of privatization in Bolivia has spurred social protest movements such as the Cochabamba Water War. The anti-water privatization movement fostered reclamation of indigenous identities by Bolivian indigenous peoples who felt detached from their traditional roots. Indigenous groups historically have been socially, politically, and economically excluded from the Bolivian nation, which has been dominated by a white/Mestizo elite. Contemporary movements have seen indigenous groups rally around their unique indigenous identities. Cultural elements such as collective memory and dance have been used as rallying points for protestors who feel denied full citizenship. In Cochabamba, the annual tradition of the Fiesta served as a focal point for collective action which united participants under their own definition of “Bolivian” culture. The resurgence in indigenous social movements has resulted in the successful overturning of neoliberal policies at the national level. Such movements are models for further overturning of top-down economic policies.

Inequitable Distribution: Wind Farms and Waste Facilities in the Pacific Northwest

Shawn Friang

Inequitable distribution in environmental justice is defined as one group bearing an excessive burden of environmental hazards. This concept has been applied to large industrial facilities such as waste disposal sites and nuclear power plants, but has not been used in reference to “green” renewable energy facilities such as wind farms. A case study was conducted of the town of Arlington, Oregon, home to two of Waste Management’s largest waste facilities and seven wind farms. After mapping the facilities and areas of health impact, the results revealed a small community dealing with multiple risk burdens from these facilities. Wind farms and waste site locations throughout the Pacific Northwest were mapped and indicated inequitable distributions of these facilities in other areas. If the distribution of these facilities is concentrating hazards in already burdened communities, why are there not better sitting policies to avoid this incident, especially for green energy facilities?

Arizona v. Johnson: Latest Developments in the War on Terry

Quinn Russell Brown

This article highlights Arizona v. Johnson, a 2009 Supreme Court case concerning the use of a pat-down during a traffic stop. The Fourth Amendment requires police officers to obtain probable cause before conducting search and seizures. In Terry v. Ohio (1968), the Supreme Court held that reasonable suspicion—more than a mere hunch, but less than probable cause—was enough to justify a temporary street stop and a pat-down for weapons. These reduced standards resulted in an unparalleled increase in incarceration and set precedent for the following half-century of pro-police jurisprudence. This article coins the term “Terry umbrella” to refer to the kit of Terry-inspired tools that subsequent cases either revamped or established from scratch. The surge in proactive policing has disproportionately affected people of color, particularly young black and Latino males. This article refers to this unequal enforcement as Terryism, as it was made possible by the Court’s 1968 ruling.

Integrated Pest Management for the City of Everett

Megan Dunn

The City of Everett would benefit from a policy creation plan for an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for the Parks and Recreation Department. In November 2011, a pilot program to maintain Everett’s Lowell Park without pesticides expired. This program should be replaced with a citywide management program to lessen pesticide use in city parks in the form of an IPM designed by community stakeholders, crew members, and Parks Department leadership. The policy implementation and main focus should mirror the best practices used by the City of Seattle. Citizen support and agenda setting for an IPM are analyzed through a neighborhood survey and local media coverage. Policy implementation suggestions are taken from decision-making steps outlined in IPM protocol for the Snohomish County park system and King County’s city of Seattle park system. The concluding policy recommendation will be presented to the Everett Parks Department and Everett City Council for consideration.

Roadblocks for International Students in Local Nursing Programs

Kathleen Gallentine

International students pursuing degrees in nursing face many difficulties entering nursing programs at local state colleges; possibly the most frustrating are the issues with obtaining a Social Security Number. The policies preventing students from obtaining a Social Security Number are complicated. This paper is an examination of the roadblocks for international students pursuing nursing degrees including the Washington State Certified Nursing Registry (as required by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987), immigration regulations, and limits in state nursing programs. These issues are analyzed by applying Malen’s and Easton’s models for political systems. After the analysis and understanding of the larger issues, current work with local administration is addressed.

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